Urdu has two different vowels, long vowels and short vowels.

  1. Long Vowels: Four long vowels in Urdu are “Alif”, “Wao”, “Choti yea” and “Badi Yea”Vowels in Urdu
  2. Short Vowels: Short Vowels (Signs): Short vowels are signs that are added to Urdu letters while writing. Following short vowels (signs) are used along with alphabets to add a direction to the sound of that alphabet.
    1. Zabar (Zabar): The sign Zabar, when used on top of any alphabet is called as Zabar. When Zabar is used, the alphabet is read with the sound of /a/.
      For Example:
      Vowels in Urdu - Zabar
      Note: Zabar is not used with alphabets, which by default has /a/ sound.For example:Vowels in Urdu - Zabar 1
    2. Zer (Zer): The sign Zer, when used beneath any alphabet is called as Zer. When Zer is used, the alphabet is read with the sound of /e/.
      For Example:
      Vowels in Urdu - Zer
      Note: Zer is not used with alphabets, which by default has /e/ sound.For example:Vowels in Urdu - Zer 1
    3. Pesh (Pesh): Pesh is a small wao Pesh used on top of an alphabet which provides the sound of /u/ to it.
      For Example:
      Vowels in Urdu - Pesh
      Note: Pesh is not used with wao “ﯙ” in any word.
    4. Madd “~”: Madd is an hyphen “~” used on top of alif only. This provides a long /aaa/ sound to /a/ sound of alif. This is not used with zer or zabar.
      Example:Vowels in Urdu - Madd

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